Criminalology Theories – Understanding Serial Killer Homicides
Sociology’s criminology theories have largely been based on human behavior. The first of these is the social construction of crime, which argues that crime doing is an automatic response to social pressure and negative socialization. The second is the self-control theory, which explains the socialization of crime, which suggests that people do not have the capacity to control their impulses to commit crime. A third is the strain theory, which suggests that an individual may turn to criminal behavior due to stress and frustration in his or her personal or family life. Lastly, theoretical integration posits that two different theories are more helpful than one.
Another theory is the trait theory, which argues that criminal behavior is genetic in origin and is determined by genes. However, it ignores the role of environment in determining criminal behavior. This theory claims that an individual’s characteristics are more important than their environment. Thus, it is not possible to study crimes by looking at their environmental factors, or even by studying the behaviors of the perpetrators. While this theory is a common one among criminologists, it is not the only one in use.
An important factor in determining the causes of crime is whether the crime is innate or learned. Biological theories were common among early criminologists, and they made many erroneous assumptions. For example, if a physical trait is passed down from parent to child, the risk of committing a crime would be passed down from one generation to the next. This theory based on inherited traits makes quick assumptions, and it has no empirical basis.
The positive approach to criminology sought to identify other causes of criminal behaviour. A nineteenth century forensic study based on crime statistics laid the foundation for generations of sophisticated analytical methods. Using case studies, descriptive statistics, typologies, and predictive analytics, modern criminology uses various techniques and methods to gather information. Cesare Beccaria’s 1764 book, “On Crime and Punishment,” advocated that the severity of a crime should be appropriate. It is believed that the aim of punishment is to deter criminal activity, and the level of harm caused is an indicator of the severity of a crime.
In the twentieth century, the focus on social causes has expanded to include the effects of crime. For example, the interdisciplinary study of criminology called multiple factor theory combines a number of theories and focuses on the social factors that contribute to a crime’s development. In this way, a positive theory has the most impact on societal policy. Its implication is wide. Its benefits and negative attributes are not limited to a particular demographic. Rather, the multiple factors in a study are shared.
The social disorganization theory suggests that people’s choices are influenced by their environment. In these situations, an isolated individual can hide his criminal actions in a social environment that is characterized by a lack of social opportunity. The “advance of criminals” is also an important factor in a crime-free society. This proverb is a practical approach to criminology. In both cases, a person’s environment plays a vital role in his or her actions.
Other criminology theories are based on biology. These theories claim that certain biological conditions are related to criminal behavior. For example, the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso hypothesized that persistent criminality was associated with atavism, a stage of human development that is characterized by lack of cognitive abilities. In contrast, William Sheldon proposed that a person with a muscular body would be more likely to commit a crime than a person who is weak in muscles.
Criminology theories are divided into two main categories: qualitative and quantitative. The former uses exploratory research questions to assess the causes of crime. The latter uses the sociological perspective to identify a problem. This is the most common type of criminology theory, while the second uses the latter’s approach to understand how it can influence a society. Several anthropologists believe that the former is the best type of theory. Some of the more famous is a more accurate description of the other.
Psychological and anthropological studies have also been conducted. The former emphasized that genetics play a role in criminal behavior, while the latter focused on how social and political factors affect crime. The former emphasized the importance of linguistics and cultural factors in crime. The last type of criminology is based on social and psychological models. It describes crime as the product of society. Its implications in the human realm are primarily outlined in the textbook.