Criminology theories vary considerably in their focus and effectiveness. Most argue that a person’s social environment influences his or her choices, and crime is a reflection of this. However, a crime-ridden community is hardly likely to be characterized by social support. Instead, crime-ridden neighborhoods will be more likely to be filled with vacant buildings, which can serve as a haven for criminal activity. These factors contribute to high crime rates.
However, some criminologists have attempted to integrate various criminology theories to explain a greater proportion of crime and delinquency. In this process, scholars borrow constructs from different theories and combine them into a single theory. Ultimately, this method allows scholars to explain behavior in a more complex and comprehensive way. In this way, scholars may avoid over-simplifying the causes of crime or delinquency.
Other criminology theories emphasize the role of social context in the development of criminal behaviour. Social contexts can affect a person’s behavior, such as their family’s income or social standing. Environmental contaminants can also influence a person’s personality. The role of genes, nutrition, and hormones in criminal behaviour can play a role. Some people may also be at a high risk of crime due to a family history of violent behaviour or neglect.
The science of crime is shaped by criminology theories. A good theory provides a foundational lens for understanding human behavior. Criminology theories have traditionally been guided by concepts from sociology, psychology, and biology. While they’ve provided useful insights into the causes of crime, their isolation has also made them unsuitable for predicting crime patterns. In many ways, criminology is a field where the field is still in its early stages.
While peacemaking criminology theories are more popular among some people, their adoption has met with more resistance from the advocates of adversarial justice. Peacemaking criminology, however, challenges many of these adversarial justice principles. It must confront warmaking criminology to achieve a positive change in society. Peacemaking criminology requires a strong social analysis of social systems and reflective thinking. It is not easy to get started implementing such a theory in practice.
Various criminology theories are based on the premise that all criminals deserve punishment. Therefore, punishments should be proportional to the damage that the crime has caused. A punishment that is too harsh is not proportionate to the damage it has caused. Besides, deterrence is considered a critical element in maintaining law and order. The theory also supports mandatory sentences. But in some cases, this theory is not appropriate.