There are many different criminology theories. The social learning theory is the most well-known theory. It claims that people learn from their social environment and develop certain traits. The strain theory suggests that people turn to criminal behavior because they are unable to fulfill their goals in society. However, this theory is not scientifically proven. It still has an influence on society. So what are the different criminology theories? Let’s take a closer look.
Critical Theory. This theory maintains that the elites define and decide what crimes are, and that those who commit crimes are not truly criminals. They disagree with the laws designed to control them. Labeling Theory. This theory teaches that people become what other people expect them to be. It warns against the use of terms such as “crime” and “criminal” when describing an individual’s behavior. These criminology theories do not apply to everyone.
Mission-oriented theory. This theory claims that a criminal acts with the intention of eliminating undesirables. Ted Kaczynski, for example, targeted universities and the airline industry in his spree. He wrote a manifesto, saying that he did so because technology was not a threat to society. The implication is obvious: killing someone is a way to get revenge, and in a sense, it’s justified by the rage and pain the victim feels.
Rational Cause Theory. This theory states that the reasons for committing a crime are rational. A deviant commits a crime because it is convenient for them. In other words, it’s a deliberate choice. A deviant makes the decision to commit a crime because it is beneficial for them. This theory emphasizes the reasons why a person commits a crime. A criminologist has to be able to distinguish between these two theories.
The Chicago school’s social ecology approach to cities led to the development of criminology theories. The social ecosystem of a city affects the behavior of its residents. In addition to this, a poor neighborhood has a broken social structure and few institutions. This disorganization inhibits the ability of these institutions to control human behavior. Sutherland, a social psychologist, made a connection between criminals and society. The three major strands of criminology theory include psychoanalysis, functionalism, interactionism, and Marxism.
The positivist theory is the most popular theory. It holds that criminals reject social acceptance and intelligence. They have no sense of morality, but are more likely to commit illegal acts. This theory also holds that a criminal’s actions are influenced by the environment and society. It is important to understand how these factors affect a person’s behavior to make sure it is not discriminatory. The psychological impact of a crime on a victim’s family is often a great factor.
There are a lot of criminology theories. But one of the most important is the sociological theory. Among its major theories is the social network theory. This theory, which has been embraced by the majority of sociologists, claims that the social network influences human behavior. In other words, there are genetics in criminology. For instance, a person may be prone to crime if they had a close relative with a violent personality.
In criminology, the social learning theory claims that most serial killers have a pattern of social learning. This pattern of social learning is also evident in the behavior of serial killer Richard Ramirez, who has committed several crimes. For instance, the social learning theory supports the idea that most criminals come from broken homes. But the more dysfunctional the environment, the more violent people are. So, the sociologist can explain all these homicidal behavior through this concept.
Biological criminology theory focuses on crime by stating that certain physical conditions influence crime. Cesare Lombroso, an Italian criminologist, discovered that persistent criminality was associated with atavism, a reversion to a more primitive state of human development. The mesomorph theory, meanwhile, won support because of its link between mesomorphs and criminal behavior. But these theories are all in the early stages of development and should not be considered as final conclusions.
Natural law is rooted in core values of many cultures. It protects people from harm. In contrast, the social contract between the state and its citizens is non-existent. The life course theory claims that the state does not exist in reality. Hence, the existence of law is not a given. Rather, the social contract is not a social contract, but a set of rules that govern behaviour. If a society is governed by rules, it can avoid crimes.